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Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

1. Registration

1a. Why should I use Market Access Map?

Market Access Map (MAcMap) is an online market analysis tool that allows you to access a large volume of market access information. MAcMap provides:
  • Applied tariff data concerning bilateral, regional and multilateral trade agreements
  • Information on rules of origin (ROO) and certificates of origin
  • Non-tariff measures (NTMs), classified according to an international nomenclature
  • Trade remedies including anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguard duties
  • Data on trade flows (import and export)
Together with an accessible, user-friendly and interactive interface that allows you to:
  • Compare market access conditions to target markets
  • Benchmark yourself against competitors in other countries
  • Calculate ad-valorem equivalent (AVE) tariffs of non-ad valorem tariffs
  • Calculate average tariffs using different aggregation methods
  • Compute product and country aggregations
  • Conduct tariff reduction simulation, including user defined tariff reduction formulae 
  • Bulk download raw data through a flexible product selection based on the Harmonized System (HS)

1b. How can I access Market Access Map?

Thanks to financial contributions from the European Commission, the World Bank and donors to ITC's trust fund, users in developing countries and territories can register at www.intracen.org/marketanalysis to access ITC’s market analysis tools free of charge. By registering, users in developed countries can obtain free access to a large part of ITC’s Market Analysis Tools. However, developed country users must subscribe to gain full access to these tools. See subscription options and fees.
 
All users worldwide can access selected modules without any fee or registration. 

1c. Why am I having difficulty accessing Market Access Map?

The reasons can be the following:
  • You received an email from ITC asking you to confirm your email address by clicking on a web link but you did not click on this link to confirm. Hence, your account has not been activated. Please return to this email to validate your account. If you cannot find this email in your inbox, please check you spam filters.
  • Your password is case sensitive. Please type it the same way you created it (lower case letters or capital letters)
  • If you have forgotten your password, you can request a new password
If you are still unsure as to why you cannot access Market Access Map, please contact us at marketanalysis@intracen.org and provide us with the following information:
  • The URL you used to log in
  • Your username
  • The error message (if any)
  • Details on the browser you used and the related version (e.g. Internet Explorer 9)
Note on Web Browser compatibility: Market Access Map does not function optimally on Safari. We suggest using our tool via Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox or Internet Explorer.
 

2. Data availability and data sources

2a. How often are Market Access Map data updated?

Market Access Map data is updated once a year, whenever possible. Some countries change their tariff rates and/or market requirements several times a year, thus it cannot be guaranteed that all data is up to date. Throughout Market Access Map, the year of data update is indicated for each type of data. To learn more about Market Access Map data per country, please visit our Data availability sub-module.

2b. Where does Market Access Map data come from?

  • Applied tariffs data from 2005 onward is sourced from the ITC (MAcMap) and includes general, most favoured nation (MFN), preferential tariff rates and tariff rate quotas. Only historical data from 1996 to 2005 are sourced from the UNCTAD (TRAINS) database.
  • Final bound rates are sourced from the WTO’s Consolidated Tariff Schedule (CTS) Data Base.
  • Non-tariff measures (NTMs) and trade remedies data are sourced from the ITC (MAcMap) and other databases, including UNCTAD (TRAINS) as the result of a joint collection effort done by ITC, UNCTAD, the World Bank.
  • Trade data on Market Access Map are sourced from the ITC (Normalized trade matrix)and the joint ITC (Trade Map)- UNSD (UN COMTRADE) databse. This data are available from 1996 onward. For more detail see FAQ 2c
To learn more about our data, visit the sub-module Data availability.

2c. Are trade data in Market Access Map the same as the trade data in Trade Map?

Not entirely. Users can select between two databases on merchandise trade statistics available in Market Access Map or navigate to Trade Map, an application dedicated to trade statistics and its analysis. The table below summarizes the differences in trade data between the two applications:


Due to the conversions of HS revisions and the presence of mirror data, the values obtained using this database may diverge from the ones retrieved from the ITC (Trade Map) – UNSD (UN Comtrade) database or accessing the Trade Map application.


3. Product and country classifications in Market Access Map

3a. What is the Harmonized System (HS)?

The Harmonized System (HS) is an international nomenclature defined by the World Customs Organisation (WCO) for the classification of products. It allows participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis for customs purposes. At the international level, the HS is a six-digit code system.
The HS comprises approximately 5,000 product descriptions that appear as headings and subheadings, arranged in 99 chapters, grouped in 21 sections. The six digits of a product code can be interpreted by groups of two digits. The first two digits (HS2) identify the chapter the good is classified in, e.g. 09 = Coffee, Tea, Maté and Spices. The next two digits (HS4) identify groupings within that chapter, e.g. 09.02 = Tea, whether or not flavoured. The next two digits (HS6) are even more specific, e.g. 09.02.10 = Green tea (not fermented)... Up to the HS6 digit level, all countries using the HS classify products in the same way. To learn more about the Harmonised System see our HS tutorial in the advanced market analysis module of our self-guided training platform.
Individual countries can increase the level of detail by adding extra numbers after the HS6 code. This national tariff line (NTL) level product code is not harmonized across the world. Its length can also differ per country e.g. HS8 or HS10.

3b. What are the Harmonised System (HS) revisions?

The Harmonized System was introduced in 1988 and has been adopted by almost all countries worldwide. However, to keep the product codes relevant it has undergone several revisions. The HS was revised in 1996, 2002, 2007 and 2012. You can check which revision a country uses in the Data availability sub-module. Only some products were affected during these revisions, as shown in the table below: 


3c. How do I search for a product using the Harmonized System (HS) classification?

You can use either the HS product code or the product description to find and select a product. Keep in mind that HS product codes are unique. Descriptions may be shortened from their original and many products may contain the key word you searched for. Therefore, we recommend that you use the product’s HS code when possible.

3d. Why can't I find a product with the Harmonized System (HS) code I have?

When you cannot find a product with a particular HS code, the reporter country for which you are trying to select this product might be using a different HS revision. For example, from HS revision 2007 to 2012, HS6 (070990) Vegetables, fresh or chilled n.e.s. has been subdivided into: (070991) Fresh or chilled globe artichokes; (070992) Fresh or chilled olives; (070993) Fresh or chilled pumpkins, squash and gourds; and (070999) Fresh or chilled vegetables n.e.s. Therefore, you cannot select the product (070991) Fresh or chilled globe artichokes for a country that uses the HS 2007 revision.
The Product nomenclatures sub-module provides an easy HS revision reference in the form of a fully flexible conversion table that lets you find the accurate HS conversion by first selecting a reference nomenclature and then selecting a corresponding HS revision.

3e. Why can't I find a country with the ISO classification code I have?

Market Access Map country codes differ slightly from the current ISO ALPHA-3 code system used by United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). The following table lists all countries for which codes do not match:
 
Market Access Map
ISO ALPHA-3             
Code
Country name
Code
Country name
251
France
250
France
699
India
356
India
381
Italy
380
Italy
579
Norway
578
Norway
736
Sudan
729
Sudan
757
Switzerland
756
Switzerland
842
United States of America
840
United States of America













3f. What are standard country groups?

Market Access Map provides a list of pre-defined country groups called “standard groups”, which are based on existing methodologies or widely used categories in the area of economic analysis. These must be distinguished from “own groups” which are custom groups created by users. All standard country groups available in Market Access Map can be downloaded here.
 
Specifically, in Market Access Map, standard groups can be chosen in the country selection menus of:
  • Advanced analysis sub modules
  • Raw Data Download sub modules
  • Options > Manage country groups
Country groups are classified according to the following criteria:
 
Geographical Regions (GEO):  This group is based on the UN Stats composition of macro geographical (continental) regions and geographical sub-regions.
 
Development Status (DEV):  Under this classification, countries have been divided in 3 mutually exclusive groups:
For the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries there is no established convention in the United Nations system. In common practice, Japan, Canada, the United States of America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe are considered "developed". Click here for more information. 
 
The Least Developed Countries group is based on the 2014 United Nations LDCs list. This list specifies 48 countries listed here
 
Income (INC):  The classification of country groups by income level is based on the World Bank Atlas Method. For 2016, this method classifies countries into 4 different income categories as follows:
 
Income Classification GNI per capita
Low income ≤ $1,045
Middle-income > $1,045 and ≤ $4,125
Upper-middle-income > $4,125 and ≤ $12,735
High-income $12,736

Trade Agreements (TA15):  These groups classify countries by trade agreements. Market Access Map only includes groups based on trade agreements which have more than 15 members. 

Economic Interest (ECO):   This classification groups countries according to popular economic definitions. It includes groups such as OECD, BRIC and OPEC.

 

4. About tariffs and tariff rate quotas

4a. Why do I get multiple applied tariff rates for the same product?

Market Access Map shows you all applied tariff rates applicable to a product imported from one specific country to another. Botswana may export sugar cane to the EU at a most favoured nation (MFN) rate of 2.5% or at an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) rate of 0%. Both rates are potentially applicable, but in order for the product to qualify for a preferential rate, the product must comply with corresponding rules of origin (ROO) which can be consulted under the Trade agreements and Rules of Origin module. Note that preferential rates agreed between countries may not cover all traded products. Therefore, it is possible that MFN rates or Genreral tariffs (in the case of non-WTO members) continue to apply for certain products between two countries that have signed a free trade agreement. 


4b. What is the difference between applied tariffs and final bound rates?

Final bound rates are the set of tariff rates that form part of a WTO member country's commitment to other WTO members, under the GATT/WTO Agreements, not to raise the tariff on a product above a specific level, namely the bound rate or bound tariff. Applied tariffs, by contrast, are duties that are actually charged on imports. They can be below or at the same level as final bound rates but they cannot be higher than final bound rates.
While in practice exporters face applied tariffs when trading abroad, they may wish to know the bound rate that applies to their product in order to see how much room there is for a specific importing country to increase its custom duties. Thus, the bound rate provides a level of commercial predictability, as this rate cannot be breached by a WTO member without offering compensation to affected trading partners.

4c. Can I view tariffs applied by more than one country and/or more than one product at a time?

Yes, you can select multiple countries and/or products in the Tariff analysis sub-module. See the user guide for step-by-step advice.

4d. What are Ad Valorem Equivalents (AVEs) tariffs, what are they used for and how are they calculated?

An ad valorem equivalent (AVE) tariff is a non-ad valorem (NAV) tariff presented as a percentage of the value of goods cleared through customs.
AVE tariffs allow comparison across different types of NAV tariffs e.g. a tariff of $2 per unit with a tariff of 10%. They also enable the aggregation of tariff rates across products and countries.
AVEs are calculated by dividing the NAV rate by the unit value. For specific details about the methodology used in Market Access Map, please visit the Methodology sub-module.

4e. What are Unit Values (UVs), what are they used for and how are they calculated?

The Unit Value (UV) is the average value of a single unit of the imported product. It is based on the total value of imports of that product divided by the quantity of imports. Because AVEs express a tariff as a percentage of the value of goods, UVs are crucial to the process of calculating these AVEs.
There are three approaches, displayed in hierarchical order, for the calculation of a given product UV:
  1. Calculation of the UVs based on the country’s imports. This approach allows you to find the UV series for a product at the NTL.
  2. Calculation of the UVs based on the country’s Reference Group imports. This approach implies the aggregation of NTLs up to the corresponding HS6 digit level code for which the UVs will be identified.
  3. Calculation of the UVs based on world imports. This approach implies the aggregation of NTLs at the HS6 digit level.
The UV calculation method used by MAcMap depends on the AVE methodology you select. The World Tariff Profile (WTP) method goes systematically through the three approaches listed above and picks the first calculation for which there is sufficient data. That is, if there is sufficient bilateral trade, the first method above will be used. The World Unit Value method goes straight to the third approach listed above. For more information on UV calculation see the Methodology sub-module.

4f. What is the difference between an N/A, 0% and a 0,00% value? How do you round numbers?

Market Access Map tariff percentages are rounded to two decimal values. Very smalll nonzero values are therefore shown as 0,00%. If a tariff is reported by a country as zero the application displays 0%. Non-available values, which can occur in those cases where AVEs cannot be calculated (e.g. for technical duties), are denoted as N/A.
 
In Market Access Map, both unit types and rounding rules depend on the type of data and whether the dataset is viewed on-screen or downloaded. The various options are summarized in the table below:
 
 
Tariff rates
Trade values
 
On screen results
Downloaded files
On screen results and downloaded files
Unit Percentage Share US$ ‘000
Rounding Upwards to two decimals Truncated at five decimals Upwards to the nearest unit (US$ ‘000)
Smallest Value Shown  0,00% which denotes any value smaller than 0.005% 0.00000 which denotes any value smaller than 0.00001 1 which denotes any value between US$1 and US$1000
Zero (0) 0% denotes a tariff reported by the country as zero (duty free) 0 denotes tariff rates reported by the country as zero (duty free) 0 denotes that no trade was reported between countries
N/A N/A denotes non-available values, e.g. in case the value cannot be calculated or was not reported N/A denotes non-available values. This implies values were not reported by countries.













 

4g. What is the difference between quotas and tariff quotas?

The application of a reduced tariff rate for a specific quantity of imported goods and a higher tariff for imports above this quantity is known as tariff rate quota. It differs from an import quota, which by contrast, is an explicit limit on the quantity of goods that may be imported. A tariff rate quota has two parts, the Inside Quota Tariff Rate (IQTR) and the Outside Quota Tariff Rate (OQTR). The treshold quantity between the IQTR and the OQTR is called the quota volume. The tariff rate quotas contained in Market Access Map are applied tariff rates and the quota volume is an aggregate treshold for all countries and products included in the quota. Market Access Map does not have bound tariff rate quota information, nor information on the quota period. Tariff rate quotas are taken into account for AVE calculations in Market Access Map (see details in the Methodology). There are a number of ways to administer quotas (see following table).
Principal methods for administering tariff quotas
Code
Explanation
AT
"Applied tariffs": No shares are allocated to importers. Imports are allowed in unlimited quantities at the Inside Quota Tariff Rate (IQTR) or below.
FC
"First-come, first-served": No shares are allocated to importers. Imports are permitted entry at the Inside Quota Tariff Rate (IQTR) until such a time as the tariff quota is filled; then the Outside Quota Tariff Rate (OQTR) automatically applies. The physical importation of the good determines the order and hence the applicable tariff.
LD
"Licenses on demand": Importers' shares are generally allocated, or licenses issued, in relation to quantities demanded and often prior to the commencement of the period during which the physical importation is to take place. This includes methods involving licenses issued on a first-come, first-served basis and those systems where license requests are reduced pro rata where they exceed available quantities.
AU
"Auctioning": Importers' shares are allocated, or licenses issued, largely on the basis of an auctioning or competitive bid system.
HI
"Historical importers": Importers' shares are allocated, or licenses issued, principally in relation to past imports of the product concerned.
ST
"Imports undertaken by state trading entities": Import shares are allocated entirely or mainly to a state trading entity which imports (or has direct control of imports undertaken by intermediaries) the product concerned.
PG
"Producer groups or associations": Import shares are allocated entirely or mainly to a producer group or association which imports the product concerned (or has direct control of imports undertaken by members).
OT
"Other": Administration methods which do not clearly fall within any of the above categories.
MX
"Mixed allocation methods": Administration methods involving a combination of the methods as set out above with no one method being dominant.
NS
"Non-specified": Tariff quotas for which no administration method has been notified.

 

 

5. About non-tariff measures (NTMs)

5a. What are non-tariff measures (NTMs)?

Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are import/export related regulations that are not in the form of a customs tariff. NTMs include a wide category of instruments such as: food safety and animal and plant health regulations - otherwise known as sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures; measures relating to the performance, labeling, size/shape, design, function etc. of products - otherwise known as technical barriers to trade (TBT); quotas; anti-competitive measures; import or export licenses; export restrictions; custom surcharges; financial measures; antidumping measures etc. For regulations required by private entities see private standards.

5b. What kind of information on non-tariff measures (NTMs) is available in Market Access Map?

Information on NTMs available in Market Access Map is retrieved from official national sources. The database is continuously updated with new countries being added, whenever possible. To see the latest country covered, please visit Data availability. For more information on the data collection procedure, please visit the Methodology.
In addition, using the sub-module Non-tariff measures links you can find links to third party web sources on market requirements.

5c. What is the difference between non-tariff measures (NTMs) and non-tariff barriers (NTBs)?

Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are a wider concept than non-tariff barriers (NTBs). NTMs include all policy measures other than tariffs that can potentially have an effect on international trade. NTM data presented in Market Access Map shows the regulatory environmnet of a country without any assumptions as to whether a given measure constitutes a barrier to trade or has a protectionist intent.

5d. What are the differences between non-tariff measures (NTMs) data in Market Access Map and WTO notifications?

In Market Access Map, NTM regulations refer to the data jointly collected by ITC, UNCTAD and the World Bank and covering rules, procedures and requirements regulating imports and exports, as well as product requirements, e.g. SPS requirements.
The notifications provided by the WTO Member-countries to the WTO Secretariat represent a sub-set of the official regulations shown in Market Access Map. The main differences are summarized below.
 
ITC-UNCTAD-World Bank data collection
WTO notifications
Based on active data collection from numerous national institutions
Based on the notifications submitted by the WTO Members to the Secretariat
Classified according to the International NTM Classification
Classified according to the GATT/WTO agreements
Complete coverage of all areas/sectors
Measures referring to areas/sectors where notifications are required under the GATT/WTO agreements
All measures in force (stock)
Newly introduced or modified measures (flow)
All measures independently of their potential impact on trade
Measures that are deemed potentially trade distorting, e.g. SPS requirements which are stricter than international standards
Any country
WTO Member Countries


6. Data download and usage

6a. What happens when I start downloading data?

After entering your query parameters and executing your download, a “Query is running” notification will appear. Depending on your query, the tool may have to retrieve a large amount of data. Therefore, it may take a while before you will see your query results.
Market Access Map will automatically send you an email to inform you when your download query has finished executing. This email will contain a link back to the query result page. Therefore, you can leave the page and switch off your internet access while you are waiting for your results.

6b. Can I download data for multiple years?

Yes, Market Access Map allows you to download applied tariffs, non-tariff measures and trade data for multiple years via the respective sub modules in Raw data download. When using this module, data for the current year will not be available due to data protection reasons. See the user guide for step-by-step instructions on how to use the different functionalities in Raw data download.

6c. Are there any data download restrictions?

Market Access Map allows you to download data on applied tariffs, final bound rates, trade and NTMs. You can currently download a maximum of 1,000,000 records per query for applied tariff data and 50,000 records per query for all the other data types.Whenever you download data, you will be informed about the number of records you have remaining.

6d. How do I quote data from Market Access Map?

The source of the data must be always acknowledged and cited in the following way: "Market Access Map, International Trade Centre, www.macmap.org, accessed on [dd,mm,yyyy]. The abridged version, to be used below graphs or in body text is "ITC Market Access Map". Any copying, automated browsing or downloading, redistribution, publication, or commercial exploitation of any materials made available through Market Analysis Tools is prohibited except for the cases explicitely permitted by applicable agreements or by the prior written permission of the International Trade Centre that can be requested by email at marketanalysis@intracen.org.


7. User support

7a. Is it possible to find online training material for users?

To make the most effective use of our tools, we offer a complete self-guided training facility with video tutorials, downloadable presentations and practical exercises. In addition, a user guide is available in English, French and Spanish. Finally, short explanatory videos are available throughout Market Access Map to help users master the application’s features.

 
 
 
 
 

Market Analysis and Research, International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO; Palais des Nations; CH-1211 Geneva 10; Switzerland
Tel.: +41 (0)22 730 05 40; Fax: +41 (0)22 730 05 77; marketanalysis@intracen.org
Copyright © 1999-2016 International Trade Centre. All rights reserved.
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Your present account does not give you access to Advanced analysis, Raw data download and Options modules.
To access the full version, please see the table below and consult the subscription options and fees.
 
Features Registered users
(free)
Registered users
(subscription)
Quick search: Data at the national tariff line level on tariffs applied by more than 190 importing countries and basic comparative statistics.
Non-tariff measures, such as technical regulations, SPS and custom formalities, trade remedies as well as rules and certificates of origin.
yes yes
Advanced analysis: Comparative analysis of multiple products, markets and suppliers as well as reduction simulations for applied tariffs and bound rates. no yes
Raw data download: Download of large datasets. no yes
Country analysis: Tariff averages for broad economic sectors; tariff&trade indicators; trade agreements over time. yes yes
Options: User- defined product and country groups, selectionof default setting such the AVE methodology. no yes
Support materials: User guide, glossary, video tutorials and useful links yes yes
   
For more information, please contact us by mail at marketanalysis@intracen.org

The Market Analysis and Research team.